A match is played between two sides, each of eleven players, one of whom shall be
captain. By agreement a match may be played between sides of fewer than, or more
than, eleven players, but not more than eleven players may field at any time.
2. Nomination of players
Each captain shall nominate his players in writing to one of the umpires before the
toss. No player may be changed after the nomination without the consent of the opposing
If at any time the captain is not available, a deputy shall act for him.
(a) If a captain is not available during the period in which the toss is to take
place, then the deputy must be responsible for the nomination of the players, if
this has not already been done, and for the toss. See 2 above and Law 12.4 (The toss).
(b) At any time after the nomination of the players, only a nominated player can
act as deputy in discharging the duties and responsibilities of the captain as stated
in these Laws.
4. Responsibility of captains
The captains are responsible at all times for ensuring that play is conducted within
the spirit and traditions of the game as well as within the Laws. See The Preamble
– The Spirit of Cricket and Law 42.1 (Fair and unfair play – responsibility of captains).
LAW 2 SUBSTITUTES AND RUNNERS;BATSMAN OR FIELDER LEAVING THE FIELD;BATSMAN RETIRING;BATSMAN
1. Substitutes and runners
(a) If the umpires are satisfied that a nominated player has been injured or become
ill since the nomination of the players, they shall allow that player to have
(i) a substitute acting for him in the field.
(ii) a runner when batting.
Any injury or illness that occurs at any time after the nomination of the players
until the conclusion of the match shall be allowable, irrespective of whether play
is in progress or not.
(b) The umpires shall have discretion to allow, for other wholly acceptable reasons,
substitute fielder or a runner to act for a nominated player, at the start of the
match, or at any subsequent time.
(c) A player wishing to change his shirt, boots, etc. shall leave the field to do
substitute shall be allowed for him.
2. Objection to substitutes
The opposing captain shall have no right of objection to any player acting as a substitute
on the field, nor as to where the substitute shall field. However, no substitute
shall act as wicketkeeper.
See 3 below.
3. Restrictions on role of substitutes
A substitute shall not be allowed to bat, bowl or act as wicket-keeper. Note also
Law 1.3(b) (Captain).
4. A player for whom a substitute has acted
A nominated player is allowed to bat, bowl or field even though a substitute has
previously acted for him.
5. Fielder absent or leaving the field
If a fielder fails to take the field with his side at the start of the match or at
any later time, or leaves the field during a session of play,
(a) the umpire shall be informed of the reason for his absence.
(b) he shall not thereafter come on to the field of play during a session of play
without the consent of the umpire. See 6 below. The umpire shall give such consent
as soon as is practicable.
(c) if he is absent for 15 minutes of playing time or longer, he shall not be permitted
to bowl thereafter, subject to (i), (ii) or (iii) below, until he has been on the
field for at least the length of playing time for which he was absent.
(i) Absence or penalty for time absent shall not be carried over into a new day’s
(ii) If, in the case of a follow-on or forfeiture, a side fields for two consecutive
innings, this restriction shall, subject to (i) above, continue as necessary into
the second innings, but shall not otherwise be carried over into a new innings.
(iii) The time lost for an unscheduled break in play shall be counted as time on
the field of play for any fielder who comes on to the field at the resumption of
play after the break. See Law 15.1 (An interval).
6. Player returning without permission
If a player comes on to the field of play in contravention of 5(b) above and comes
into contact with the ball while it is in play,
(a) the ball shall immediately become dead and the umpire shall award 5 penalty runs
to the batting side. Additionally, runs completed by the batsmen shall be scored
together with the run in progress if they had already crossed at the instant of the
offence. The ball shall not count as one of the over.
(b) the umpire shall inform the other umpire, the captain of the fielding side, the
batsmen and, as soon as practicable, the captain of the batting side of the reason
for this action.
(c) the umpires together shall report the occurrence as soon as possible after the
match to the Executive of the fielding side and to any Governing Body responsible
for the match, who shall take such action as is considered appropriate against the
captain and the player concerned.
The player acting as a runner for a batsman shall be a member of the batting side
and shall, if possible, have already batted in that innings. The runner shall wear
external protective equipment equivalent to that worn by the batsman for whom he
runs and shall carry a bat.
8. Transgression of the Laws by a batsman who has a runner
(a) A batsman’s runner is subject to the Laws. He will be regarded as a batsman except
where there are specific provisions for his role as a runner. See 7 above and Law
29.2 (Which is a batsman’s ground).
(b) A batsman who has a runner will suffer the penalty for any infringement of the
Laws by his runner as if he had been himself responsible for the infringement. In
particular he will be out if his runner is out under any of Laws 33 (Handled the
ball), 37 (Obstructing the field) or 38 (Run out).
(c) When a batsman who has a runner is striker he remains himself subject to the
Laws and will be liable to the penalties that any infringement of them demands.
Additionally, if he is out of his ground when the wicket at the wicket-keeper’s end
fairly put down by the action of a fielder then, notwithstanding (b) above and irrespective
of the position of the non-striker and the runner,
(i) notwithstanding the provisions of Law 38.2(e), he is out Run out except as in
below. Sections (a), (b), (c) and (d) of Law 38.2 (Batsman not Run out) shall apply.
(ii) he is out Stumped if the delivery is not a No ball and the wicket is fairly
put down by the wicket-keeper without the intervention of another fielder. However,
Law 39.2(a) (Not out Stumped) shall apply.
If he is thus dismissed, runs completed by the runner and the other batsman before
wicket is put down shall be disallowed. However, any runs for penalties awarded to
either side shall stand. See Law 18.6 (Runs awarded for penalties). The non-striker
shall return to his original end.
(d) When a batsman who has a runner is not the striker
(i) he remains subject to Laws 33 (Handled the ball) and 37 (Obstructing the field)
is otherwise out of the game.
(ii) he shall stand where directed by the striker’s end umpire so as not to interfere
(iii) he will be liable, notwithstanding (i) above, to the penalty demanded by the
should he commit any act of unfair play.
9. Batsman retiring
A batsman may retire at any time during his innings when the ball is dead. The umpires,
before allowing play to proceed shall be informed of the reason for a batsman retiring.
(a) If a batsman retires because of illness, injury or any other unavoidable cause,
he is entitled to resume his innings subject to (c) below. If for any reason he does
not do so, his innings is to be recorded as ‘Retired – not out’.
(b) If a batsman retires for any reason other than as in (a) above, he may resume
his innings only with the consent of the opposing captain. If for any reason he does
not resume his innings it is to be recorded as ‘Retired – out’.
(c) If after retiring a batsman resumes his innings, it shall be only at the fall
of a wicket or the retirement of another batsman.
10. Commencement of a batsman’s innings
Except at the start of a side’s innings, a batsman shall be considered to have commenced
his innings when he first steps on to the field of play, provided Time has not been
called. The innings of the opening batsmen, and that of any new batsman on the resumption
of play after a call of Time, shall commence at the call of Play.
LAW 3 THE UMPIRES
1. Appointment and attendance
Before the match, two umpires shall be appointed, one for each end, to control the
game as required by the Laws, with absolute impartiality. The umpires shall be present
on the ground and report to the Executive of the ground at least 45 minutes before
the scheduled start of each day’s play.
2. Change of umpire
An umpire shall not be changed during the match, other than in exceptional circumstances,
unless he is injured or ill. If there has to be a change of umpire, the replacement
shall act only as striker’s end umpire unless the captains agree that he should take
full responsibility as an umpire.
3. Agreement with captains
Before the toss the umpires shall
(a) ascertain the hours of play and agree with the captains
(i) the balls to be used during the match. See Law 5 (The ball).
(ii) times and durations of intervals for meals and times for drinks intervals. See
Law 15 (Intervals).
(iii) the boundary of the field of play and allowances for boundaries. See Law 19
(iv) any special conditions of play affecting the conduct of the match.
(b) inform the scorers of agreements in (ii), (iii) and (iv) above.
4. To inform captains and scorers
Before the toss the umpires shall agree between themselves and inform both captains
and both scorers
(i) which clock or watch and back-up time piece is to be used during the match.
(ii) whether or not any obstacle within the field of play is to be regarded as a
boundary. See Law 19 (Boundaries).
5. The wickets, creases and boundaries
Before the toss and during the match, the umpires shall satisfy themselves that
(a) the wickets are properly pitched. See Law 8 (The wickets)
(b) the creases are correctly marked. See Law 9 (The bowling, popping and return
(c) the boundary of the field of play complies with the requirements of Laws 19.1
(The boundary of the field of play) and 19.2 (Defining the boundary – boundary marking).
6. Conduct of the game, implements and equipment
Before the toss and during the match, the umpires shall satisfy themselves that
(a) the conduct of the game is strictly in accordance with the Laws.
(b) the implements of the game conform to the following
(i) Law 5 (The ball)
(ii) externally visible requirements of Law 6 (The bat) and Appendix E.
(iii) either Laws 8.2 (Size of stumps) and 8.3 (The bails) or, if appropriate, Law
(c) (i) no player uses equipment other than that permitted. See Appendix D. Note
particularly therein the interpretation of ‘protective helmet’.
(ii) the wicket-keeper’s gloves comply with the requirements of Law 40.2 (Gloves).
7. Fair and unfair play
The umpires shall be the sole judges of fair and unfair play.
8. Fitness for play
(a) It is solely for the umpires together to decide whether either conditions of
ground, weather or light or exceptional circumstances mean that it would be dangerous
or unreasonable for play to take place. Conditions shall not be regarded as either
dangerous or unreasonable merely because they are not ideal.
(b) Conditions shall be regarded as dangerous if there is actual and foreseeable
risk to the safety of any player or umpire.
(c) Conditions shall be regarded as unreasonable if, although posing no risk to safety,
it would not be sensible for play to proceed.
9. Suspension of play in dangerous or unreasonable conditions
(a) All references to ground include the pitch. See Law 7.1 (Area of pitch).
(b) If at any time the umpires together agree that the conditions of ground, weather
or light, or any other circumstances are dangerous or unreasonable, they shall immediately
suspend play, or not allow play to start or to recommence.
(c) When there is a suspension of play it is the responsibility of the umpires to
monitor conditions. They shall make inspections as often as appropriate, unaccompanied
by any players or officials. Immediately the umpires together agree that the conditions
are no longer dangerous or unreasonable they shall call upon the players to resume
10. Position of umpires
Each umpire shall stand where he can best see any act upon which his decision may
Subject to this over-riding consideration, the bowler’s end umpire shall stand where
he does not interfere with either the bowler’s run up or the striker’s view.
The striker’s end umpire may elect to stand on the off side instead of the on side
of the pitch, provided he informs the captain of the fielding side, the striker and
the other umpire of his intention to do so.
11. Umpires changing ends
The umpires shall change ends after each side has had one completed innings. See
Law 12.3 (Completed innings)
12. Consultation between umpires
All disputes shall be determined by the umpires. The umpires shall consult with each
other whenever necessary. See also Law 27.6 (Consultation by umpires)
13. Informing the umpires
Throughout the Laws, wherever the umpires are to receive information from captains
or other players, it will be sufficient for one umpire to be so informed and for
him to inform the other umpire.
(a) The following code of signals shall be used by umpires.
(i) Signals made while the ball is in play
Dead ball - by crossing and re-crossing the wrists below the waist.
No ball - by extending one arm horizontally.
Out - by raising an index finger above the head. (If not out, the umpire shall call
Wide - by extending both arms horizontally.
(ii) When the ball is dead, the bowler’s end umpire shall repeat the signals above,
with the exception of the signal for Out, to the scorers.
(iii) The signals listed below shall be made to the scorers only when the ball is
Boundary 4 - by waving an arm from side to side finishing with the arm across
Boundary 6 - by raising both arms above the head.
Bye - by raising an open hand above the head.
Commencement of last hour - by pointing to a raised wrist with the other hand.
Five penalty runs awarded to the batting side - by repeated tapping of one shoulder
with the opposite hand.
Five penalty runs awarded to the fielding side - by placing one hand on the opposite
Leg bye - by touching a raised knee with the hand.
New ball - by holding the ball above the head.
Revoke last signal - by touching both shoulders, each with the opposite hand.
Short run - by bending one arm upwards and touching the nearer shoulder with the
tips of the fingers.
All these signals are to be made by the bowler’s end umpire except that for Short
run, which is to be signalled by the umpire at the end where short running occurs.
However, the bowler’s end umpire shall be responsible both for the final signal of
Short run to the scorers and for informing them as to the number of runs to be
(b) The umpire shall wait until each signal to the scorers has been separately acknowledged
by a scorer before allowing play to proceed.
15 Correctness of scores
Consultation between umpires and scorers on doubtful points is essential. The umpires
shall, throughout the match, satisfy themselves as to the correctness of the number
of runs scored, the wickets that have fallen and, where appropriate, the number of
overs bowled. They shall agree these with the scorers at least at every interval,
other than a drinks interval, and at the conclusion of the match. See Laws 4.2 (Correctness
of scores), 21.8 (Correctness of result) and 21.10 (Result not to be changed).
LAW 4 THE SCORERS
1. Appointment of scorers
Two scorers shall be appointed to record all runs scored, all wickets taken and,
appropriate, number of overs bowled.
2. Correctness of scores
The scorers shall frequently check to ensure that their records agree. They shall
agree with the umpires, at least at every interval, other than drinks intervals,
and at the conclusion of the match, the runs scored, the wickets that have fallen
and, where appropriate, the number of overs bowled. See Law 3.15 (Correctness of
3. Acknowledging signals
The scorers shall accept all instructions and signals given to them by umpires. They
shall immediately acknowledge each separate signal.